Our top FAQs

Explore Our Top FAQs for Comprehensive Insights

Stem cells

Stem cells are undifferentiated cells necessary for the body to replenish, maintain, and regenerate tissue. Stem cells fulfill this task by differentiating into various cell types and by self-renewing, according to the body’s needs.

  1. Differentiation allows stem cells to become other cell types such as blood, nerves, bones, muscles, and blood vessels.

 

  1. Stem cells self-renew by dividing to replenish lost or dead cells and to repair defects in tissues.

Treatment with stem cells as early as possible in a disease or tissue damage process will result in a more immediate improvement. The immunomodulatory and tissue-repairing effects continue to last for several months (effects of treatments may vary between individuals).

As we age, the quantity and quality of our stem cells decline. This can lead to a reduction in their ability to differentiate into various cell types and replace damaged or worn-out cells.

Additionally, the accumulation of DNA damage over time may make it more difficult for stem cells to divide and maintain proper tissue function.

These changes can contribute to age-related declines in tissue and organ function, which in turn can increase the risk of developing various health problems such as heart disease, stroke, and neurodegenerative diseases. Additionally, the decline in stem cell function can also impact the body’s ability to regenerate and repair damaged tissue, which can further contribute to the aging process.

We are proud to be the exclusive provider of the second generation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in our clinic. These advanced stem cells are derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC-derived MSCs or iMSCs), granting them unique properties that significantly enhance their regenerative capabilities. Notably, these stem cells have been engineered to augment their regenerative potential and evade detection by the immune system, thus improving their engraftment efficiency. A key feature of our technology is a failsafe mechanism designed to prevent uncontrolled cell proliferation, ensuring there is absolutely no risk of tumor growth.

 

In addition to our unique MSCs, we have developed proprietary protocols to optimize their effectiveness. Our umbilical cord stem cells are carefully manufactured to maximize cell viability. To further enhance their therapeutic impact, we have integrated specific peptides into our protocols. In certain situations, inflammatory microenvironments can increase the immunogenicity of MSCs, potentially leading to reduced efficacy. By strategically combining our MSCs with these peptides, we can effectively mitigate inflammation, thereby maximizing the benefits of the MSCs while ensuring both safety and efficacy for our patients.

Eterna has partnered with a reputable production facility for the development and manufacturing of our cell-based therapeutics. Our production partners adhere strictly to the stringent international requirements to ensure the quality and safety of all cells and cell-derived products prepared for patient treatment. Their facilities have intensive environmental monitoring of particulates and contaminants and they employ careful temperature, humidity, and pressure control to optimise cell preparation conditions. Cell products are then immediately cryopreserved and remain in ultra-low temperature until our patients are ready to receive treatment.

We are proud to be the exclusive provider of the second generation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in our clinic. These advanced stem cells are derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC-derived MSCs or iMSCs), granting them unique properties that significantly enhance their regenerative capabilities. Notably, these stem cells have been engineered to augment their regenerative potential and evade detection by the immune system, thus improving their engraftment efficiency. A key feature of our technology is a failsafe mechanism designed to prevent uncontrolled cell proliferation, ensuring there is absolutely no risk of tumor growth.

In addition to our unique MSCs, we have developed proprietary protocols to optimize their effectiveness. Our umbilical cord stem cells are carefully manufactured to maximize cell viability. To further enhance their therapeutic impact, we have integrated specific peptides into our protocols. In certain situations, inflammatory microenvironments can increase the immunogenicity of MSCs, potentially leading to reduced efficacy. By strategically combining our MSCs with these peptides, we can effectively mitigate inflammation, thereby maximizing the benefits of the MSCs while ensuring both safety and efficacy for our patients.

As different patients have different needs, we will carefully work with you to determine the ideal dose and route of treatment you need. Depending on the needs of any individual patient, we will monitor the patient’s health status and follow-up at 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after the initial treatment. We will determine the need for repeat treatment at those times.

Stem cells have the property of accumulating at the damaged site called the “homing phenomenon”. Damaged tissue will exert cytokines and adhesion factors, which act as signals to draw in stem cells to the areas where they are needed for tissue renewal. Therefore, when stem cells are injected into the blood, they naturally accumulate at the various sites requiring their use and will subsequently exert a therapeutic effect.

Fat tissue harvesting is safer and less burdensome to the body than bone marrow harvest. Similar to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells can differentiate into fat, bone, and cartilage, as well as the ability to differentiate into muscle, which is not found in bone marrow-derived cells.

Stem cells generally support human growth throughout life. Mesenchymal stem cells in adults serve to repair and replace tissue that is damaged throughout life. MSCs have many advantages including their immunomodulatory cell signaling effects. They can also be used for targeted differentiation into many different cell types including muscle, bone cells, cartilage cells, fat cells, blood cells, and even neurons.

Stem cells include pluripotent stem cells that can be created from any cells in the body, such as embryonic stem cells (ES cells) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). Tissue/mesenchymal stem cells are obtained from tissues such as skin, fat, bone marrow, and blood. Tissue stem cells are associated with less ethical concerns and cancer risk than ES cells and iPS cells.

One treatment we offer is the use of adipose stem cells cultured from the fat of the patients themselves. With these treatments, there is no rejection reaction due to transplantation. It is a highly safe treatment with a low risk of tumor formation found in iPSC and ES cells. In addition, the wound when collecting fat is about 5 mm and it is a surgery that does not burden the body.

Stemness encompasses the capability of a cell for self-renewal and differentiation. There are several types of stemness, including:

Totipotency: The ability of a cell to differentiate into any cell type.

Pluripotency: The ability of a cell to differentiate into any of the three germ layers (endoderm, mesoderm, or ectoderm) that give rise to all cells in the body.

Multipotency: The ability of a cell to differentiate into multiple, but not all, cell types within a particular tissue or organ.

Unipotency: The ability of a cell to differentiate into only one specific cell type.

exosomes

Stem cell exosomes are small membrane-bound sacs, known as vesicles, that are secreted from stem cells. These extracellular vesicles play important roles in the secretion of molecules such as proteins, lipids, and other small molecules. Exosomes are involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes including modulation of immune response. Exosomes are also being used for several medical applications, disease diagnosis, and regenerative treatments such as reducing inflammation, and oxidative stress, increasing blood flow, and slowing down tissue degeneration.

No. Exosomes can vary in their size, composition, and function, depending on the type of cell from which they are released, and the physiological or pathological state of the cell. Exosomes can differ in their protein, lipid, and nucleic acid content, as well as their cargo of functional molecules, such as enzymes, growth factors, and microRNAs. The cargo of exosomes is thought to reflect the functional state of the cell that releases them, and exosomes can therefore be used as a source of biomarkers for disease diagnosis or as a tool for therapeutic intervention. Furthermore, exosomes from different cell types have been shown to have different functions, such as promoting or inhibiting immune responses or modulating tumor growth and metastasis. Therefore, it is important to carefully characterize the exosomes of interest to understand their properties and therapeutic applications fully.

Microvesicles are small, membrane-bound vesicles that are shed from the surface of cells. They are similar in size and composition to exosomes, but they are formed by a different mechanism. Microvesicles are generated by the outward budding and fission of the cell’s plasma membrane, whereas exosomes are formed within the endosomal pathway of the cell.

Microvesicles have been shown to contain various biomolecules, such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, and they have been implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological processes, including intercellular communication, coagulation, and inflammation. Like exosomes, microvesicles also have potential as diagnostic and therapeutic tools due to their ability to transfer bioactive molecules between cells.

Exosomes are small, membrane-bound vesicles that are released by cells and contain various biomolecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. They play a role in intercellular communication and can be found in various biological fluids, including blood, urine, and breast milk. Exosomes are also being used for several medical applications, disease diagnosis and regenerative treatments such to reduce inflammation, oxidative stress, increase blood flow, and slow down general degeneration.

In short, No. Exosomes can vary in their size, composition, and function, depending on the type of cell from which they are released and the physiological or pathological state of the cell. Exosomes can differ in their protein, lipid, and nucleic acid content, as well as their cargo of functional molecules, such as enzymes, growth factors, and microRNAs. The cargo of exosomes is thought to reflect the functional state of the cell that releases them, and exosomes can therefore be used as a source of biomarkers for disease diagnosis or as a tool for therapeutic intervention. Furthermore, exosomes from different cell types have been shown to have different functions, such as promoting or inhibiting immune responses or modulating tumor growth and metastasis. Therefore, it is important to carefully characterize the exosomes of interest in order to fully understand their properties and potential applications.

Exosomes are being used as a therapeutic tool for a variety of conditions. They have been investigated for their ability to deliver drugs or therapeutic molecules, as well as for their ability to promote tissue regeneration and modulate the immune response. Some of the conditions that exosomes are being studied to treat include:

Cancer: Exosomes are being investigated as a way to deliver drugs or genetic material to cancer cells or to stimulate the immune system to attack cancer cells.

Neurological disorders: Exosomes may be able to cross the blood-brain barrier and deliver therapeutic molecules to the brain, making them a potential treatment for neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease.

Cardiovascular disease: Exosomes may be able to promote the regeneration of damaged tissue and improve blood vessel function, making them a potential treatment for cardiovascular diseases, such as heart attack and stroke.

Inflammatory and autoimmune disorders: Exosomes have been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties and may be able to modulate the immune response, making them a potential treatment for inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis.

platelet-rich plasma (PRP)

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a preparation of a patient’s own blood that is enriched with a high concentration of platelets. Platelets are blood cells that play a key role in clotting and wound healing. PRP is typically prepared by collecting a small amount of the patient’s blood, and then processing it in a centrifuge to separate out the platelets and concentrate them into a small volume of plasma. The resulting PRP preparation is then injected into the patient’s body at the site of injury or tissue damage to promote healing and tissue regeneration.

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a preparation of a patient’s own blood that is enriched with a high concentration of platelets. Platelets are blood cells that play a key role in clotting and wound healing. PRP is typically prepared by collecting a small amount of the patient’s blood, and then processing it in a centrifuge to separate out the platelets and concentrate them into a small volume of plasma. The resulting PRP preparation is then injected into the patient’s body at the site of injury or tissue damage to promote healing and tissue regeneration.

Inflammation is a natural process that occurs in the body in response to injury or infection. It is a complex biological response that involves the activation of various cells, cytokines, and other molecules to remove the source of the injury or infection and initiate tissue repair.

While inflammation is an important protective response, chronic or excessive inflammation can have negative effects on the body. Prolonged or unresolved inflammation can damage healthy tissues and contribute to the development of many diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, and certain cancers.

Chronic inflammation can also affect the immune system and increase the risk of autoimmune diseases, in which the immune system attacks healthy tissues in the body. In addition, chronic inflammation has been linked to aging and age-related diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, reducing chronic inflammation in the body is an important goal for promoting health and preventing disease.

PRP has been shown to inhibit the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which are involved in the inflammatory response. PRP has also been shown to increase the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-10, which can help to counteract the effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

PRP has been used in a variety of medical fields, including orthopedics, sports medicine, and dermatology post-surgical, cosmetics, veterinary medicine, and erectile dysfunction. In orthopedics and sports medicine, PRP has been used to treat soft tissue injuries, such as tendonitis and ligament sprains, as well as osteoarthritis. In dermatology, PRP has been used for facial rejuvenation and to promote hair growth in patients with hair loss.

Platelet-Rich Plasma with Exosomes is a proprietary product that Eterna is bringing to market. While exosomes are heavily regulated by the FDA, we have devised a system using ultracentrifugation to extract exosomes from the patient’s blood. The exosomes are then combined with the PRP for re-injection. This formula has allowed us to offer a product that features a tenfold increase in anti-inflammatory markers, which can be used for a much wider range of treatments while adhering to FDA regulations.

gene editing

Gene editing is a process of making precise, intentional changes to the DNA sequence of an organism’s genome. It involves the use of engineered nucleases, such as CRISPR-Cas9, to cut DNA at specific locations and then introduce new genetic material to the cut site, either by repairing the cut using the cell’s natural repair mechanisms or by inserting new genetic material.

This technology can be used to add, delete, or replace specific genes or gene sequences in an organism’s genome. Gene editing has the potential to provide new treatments for genetic diseases by correcting or modifying the genetic mutations that cause them. It can also be used to create new crop varieties, improve livestock breeds, and develop new industrial and pharmaceutical products.

The most widely used gene editing technology is CRISPR-Cas9, which involves the use of a guide RNA (gRNA) and a nuclease enzyme, Cas9. The gRNA is designed to recognize and bind to a specific DNA sequence, guiding the Cas9 enzyme to that location in the genome. Once the Cas9 enzyme is bound to the DNA, it cuts the DNA strands at the targeted location. This creates a double-stranded break, which activates the cell’s natural DNA repair mechanisms.

Two main types of DNA repair mechanisms can be harnessed to introduce specific changes to the genome: non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homology-directed repair (HDR). NHEJ is a quick and simple mechanism that repairs the double-strand break by directly joining the two cut ends of the DNA, often leading to the insertion or deletion of genetic material at the cut site. HDR, on the other hand, can be used to introduce more precise changes by using a DNA template to repair the cut site, leading to the introduction of specific genetic changes.

Eterna has partnered with Minicircle to bring the world’s first reversible gene editing technology to the market. We are using highly expressive DNA plasmids to add genes to the human body without altering your pre-existing genome. Our reversible plasmid platform is completely non-inflammatory (unlike AAV) and non-heritable. It is designed as a universal gene therapy protocol.

Plasmids are small circular loops of DNA that are completely non-inflammatory, easy to manufacture and distribute, do not integrate into or edit your original chromosome, are not heritable, and can be designed to include responsive switches allowing the gene to be turned on or off via the consumption of an activator pill – making treatment reversible.

We have designed these plasmids as a friendly and safe universal platform for reversible gene therapy. Plasmid therapy promises unlimited health, independence from disease, and to reimagine the future of our identity.

All Gene Therapies are equipped with a genetic kill-switch encoded into the DNA where the plasmids are destroyed in the presence of the common antibiotic tetracycline.

Minicircle currently has trials underway to cure HIV, ALS, Muscular Dystrophy, Herpes, Low Testosterone, Dyskeratosis Congenita, Crohn’s Disease and General Obesity with several other Tissue Regeneration, Antibody Delivery and DNA Repair Programs underway.

Follistatin, a naturally occurring protein in the human body, plays a crucial role in regulating various cellular processes, particularly in the context of muscle growth and development. In recent studies involving mice, gene therapy utilizing follistatin has demonstrated remarkable potential without any known or anticipated cancer risk. This safety profile can be attributed to the precise and highly specific mechanisms through which follistatin operates at the cellular level.

 

At the heart of follistatin’s cellular action lies its ability to modulate the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily, a group of proteins that control essential cellular functions. Follistatin achieves this by binding to specific members of the TGF-β superfamily, most notably myostatin, a protein that negatively regulates muscle growth. When follistatin binds to myostatin, it effectively neutralizes its inhibitory effects on muscle development. This interaction leads to enhanced muscle protein synthesis and reduced muscle protein degradation, resulting in increased muscle mass and strength.

 

Furthermore, follistatin’s action is highly tissue-specific, meaning it predominantly affects muscle cells without causing uncontrolled proliferation or growth in other tissues. This specificity is crucial for the safety of gene therapy, as it ensures that the biological effects are confined to the intended target, minimizing the risk of unintended consequences such as cancer development.

 

Moreover, due to the significant decrease in cellular inflammation and intrinsic biological age reduction, we expect it will ultimately decrease the risk of cancer and other chronic diseases.

Stay young, and stay alive because the future looks bright!